.. _setup: Installation ============ phpMyAdmin does not apply any special security methods to the MySQL database server. It is still the system administrator's job to grant permissions on the MySQL databases properly. phpMyAdmin's :guilabel:`Users` page can be used for this. .. warning:: :term:`Mac` users should note that if you are on a version before :term:`Mac OS X`, StuffIt unstuffs with :term:`Mac` formats. So you'll have to resave as in BBEdit to Unix style ALL phpMyAdmin scripts before uploading them to your server, as PHP seems not to like :term:`Mac`-style end of lines character ("``\r``"). Linux distributions +++++++++++++++++++ phpMyAdmin is included in most Linux distributions. It is recommended to use distribution packages when possible - they usually provide integration to your distribution and you will automatically get security updates from your distribution. Debian ------ Debian's package repositories include a phpMyAdmin package, but be aware that the configuration file is maintained in ``/etc/phpmyadmin`` and may differ in some ways from the official phpMyAdmin documentation. OpenSUSE -------- OpenSUSE already comes with phpMyAdmin package, just install packages from the `openSUSE Build Service `_. Ubuntu ------ Ubuntu ships phpMyAdmin package, however if you want to use recent version, you can use packages from `PPA for Michal Čihař `_. Gentoo ------ Gentoo ships the phpMyAdmin package, both in a near stock configuration as well as in a ``webapp-config`` configuration. Use ``emerge dev-db/phpmyadmin`` to install. Mandriva -------- Mandriva ships the phpMyAdmin package in their ``contrib`` branch and can be installed via the usual Control Center. Fedora ------ Fedora ships the phpMyAdmin package, but be aware that the configuration file is maintained in ``/etc/phpMyAdmin/`` and may differ in some ways from the official phpMyAdmin documentation. Red Hat Enterprise Linux ------------------------ Red Hat Enterprise Linux itself and thus derivatives like CentOS don't ship phpMyAdmin, but the Fedora-driven repository `Extra Packages for Enterprise Linux (EPEL) `_ is doing so, if it's `enabled `_. But be aware that the configuration file is maintained in ``/etc/phpMyAdmin/`` and may differ in some ways from the official phpMyAdmin documentation. Installing on Windows +++++++++++++++++++++ The easiest way to get phpMyAdmin on Windows is using third party products which include phpMyAdmin together with a database and web server such as `XAMPP `_. You can find more of such options at `Wikipedia `_. .. _quick_install: Quick Install +++++++++++++ #. Choose an appropriate distribution kit from the phpmyadmin.net Downloads page. Some kits contain only the English messages, others contain all languages. We'll assume you chose a kit whose name looks like ``phpMyAdmin-x.x.x -all-languages.tar.gz``. #. Untar or unzip the distribution (be sure to unzip the subdirectories): ``tar -xzvf phpMyAdmin_x.x.x-all-languages.tar.gz`` in your webserver's document root. If you don't have direct access to your document root, put the files in a directory on your local machine, and, after step 4, transfer the directory on your web server using, for example, ftp. #. Ensure that all the scripts have the appropriate owner (if PHP is running in safe mode, having some scripts with an owner different from the owner of other scripts will be a problem). See :ref:`faq4_2` and :ref:`faq1_26` for suggestions. #. Now you must configure your installation. There are two methods that can be used. Traditionally, users have hand-edited a copy of :file:`config.inc.php`, but now a wizard-style setup script is provided for those who prefer a graphical installation. Creating a :file:`config.inc.php` is still a quick way to get started and needed for some advanced features. Manually creating the file -------------------------- To manually create the file, simply use your text editor to create the file :file:`config.inc.php` (you can copy :file:`config.sample.inc.php` to get a minimal configuration file) in the main (top-level) phpMyAdmin directory (the one that contains :file:`index.php`). phpMyAdmin first loads :file:`libraries/config.default.php` and then overrides those values with anything found in :file:`config.inc.php`. If the default value is okay for a particular setting, there is no need to include it in :file:`config.inc.php`. You'll probably need only a few directives to get going; a simple configuration may look like this: .. code-block:: xml+php Or, if you prefer to not be prompted every time you log in: .. code-block:: xml+php For a full explanation of possible configuration values, see the :ref:`config` of this document. .. index:: Setup script .. _setup_script: Using Setup script ------------------ Instead of manually editing :file:`config.inc.php`, you can use phpMyAdmin's setup feature. First you must manually create a folder ``config`` in the phpMyAdmin directory. This is a security measure. On a Linux/Unix system you can use the following commands: .. code-block:: sh cd phpMyAdmin mkdir config # create directory for saving chmod o+rw config # give it world writable permissions And to edit an existing configuration, copy it over first: .. code-block:: sh cp config.inc.php config/ # copy current configuration for editing chmod o+w config/config.inc.php # give it world writable permissions .. note:: Debian and Ubuntu have simplified this setup and all you need to do is to execute :program:`/usr/sbin/pma-configure`. On other platforms, simply create the folder and ensure that your web server has read and write access to it. :ref:`faq1_26` can help with this. Next, open your browser and visit the location where you installed phpMyAdmin, with the ``/setup`` suffix. If you have an existing configuration, use the ``Load`` button to bring its content inside the setup panel. Note that **changes are not saved to disk until you explicitly choose ``Save``** from the *Configuration* area of the screen. Normally the script saves the new :file:`config.inc.php` to the ``config/`` directory, but if the webserver does not have the proper permissions you may see the error "Cannot load or save configuration." Ensure that the ``config/`` directory exists and has the proper permissions - or use the ``Download`` link to save the config file locally and upload it (via FTP or some similar means) to the proper location. Once the file has been saved, it must be moved out of the ``config/`` directory and the permissions must be reset, again as a security measure: .. code-block:: sh mv config/config.inc.php . # move file to current directory chmod o-rw config.inc.php # remove world read and write permissions rm -rf config # remove not needed directory .. note:: Debian and Ubuntu have simplified this setup and all you need to do is to execute :program:`/usr/sbin/pma-secure`. Now the file is ready to be used. You can choose to review or edit the file with your favorite editor, if you prefer to set some advanced options which the setup script does not provide. #. If you are using the ``auth_type`` "config", it is suggested that you protect the phpMyAdmin installation directory because using config does not require a user to enter a password to access the phpMyAdmin installation. Use of an alternate authentication method is recommended, for example with HTTP–AUTH in a :term:`.htaccess` file or switch to using ``auth_type`` cookie or http. See the :ref:`faqmultiuser` for additional information, especially :ref:`faq4_4`. #. Open the `main phpMyAdmin directory `_ in your browser. phpMyAdmin should now display a welcome screen and your databases, or a login dialog if using :term:`HTTP` or cookie authentication mode. #. You should deny access to the ``./libraries`` and ``./setup/lib`` subfolders in your webserver configuration. Such configuration prevents from possible path exposure and cross side scripting vulnerabilities that might happen to be found in that code. For the Apache webserver, this is often accomplished with a :term:`.htaccess` file in those directories. #. It is generally a good idea to protect a public phpMyAdmin installation against access by robots as they usually can not do anything good there. You can do this using ``robots.txt`` file in root of your webserver or limit access by web server configuration, see :ref:`faq1_42`. .. index:: single: Configuration storage single: phpMyAdmin configuration storage single: pmadb .. _linked-tables: phpMyAdmin configuration storage ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ For a whole set of additional features (bookmarks, comments, :term:`SQL`-history, tracking mechanism, :term:`PDF`-generation, column contents transformation, etc.) you need to create a set of special tables. Those tables can be located in your own database, or in a central database for a multi-user installation (this database would then be accessed by the controluser, so no other user should have rights to it). Zero configuration ------------------ In many cases, this database structure can be automatically created and configured. This is called “Zero Configuration” mode and can be particularly useful in shared hosting situations. “Zeroconf” mode is on by default, to disable set :config:option:`$cfg['ZeroConf']` to false. The following three scenarios are covered by the Zero Configuration mode: * When entering a database where the configuration storage tables are not present, phpMyAdmin offers to create them from the Operations tab. * When entering a database where the tables do already exist, the software automatically detects this and begins using them. This is the most common situation; after the tables are initially created automatically they are continually used without disturbing the user; this is also most useful on shared hosting where the user is not able to edit :file:`config.inc.php` and usually the user only has access to one database. * When having access to multiple databases, if the user first enters the database containing the configuration storage tables then switches to another database, phpMyAdmin continues to use the tables from the first database; the user is not prompted to create more tables in the new database. Manual configuration -------------------- Please look at your ``./examples/`` directory, where you should find a file called *create\_tables.sql*. (If you are using a Windows server, pay special attention to :ref:`faq1_23`). If you already had this infrastructure and: * upgraded to MySQL 4.1.2 or newer, please use :file:`examples/upgrade_tables_mysql_4_1_2+.sql`. * upgraded to phpMyAdmin 4.3.0 or newer from 2.5.0 or newer (<= 4.2.x), please use :file:`examples/upgrade_column_info_4_3_0+.sql`. and then create new tables by importing :file:`examples/create_tables.sql`. You can use your phpMyAdmin to create the tables for you. Please be aware that you may need special (administrator) privileges to create the database and tables, and that the script may need some tuning, depending on the database name. After having imported the :file:`examples/create_tables.sql` file, you should specify the table names in your :file:`config.inc.php` file. The directives used for that can be found in the :ref:`config`. You will also need to have a controluser (:config:option:`$cfg['Servers'][$i]['controluser']` and :config:option:`$cfg['Servers'][$i]['controlpass']` settings) with the proper rights to those tables. For example you can create it using following statement: .. code-block:: mysql GRANT SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE ON .* TO 'pma'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY 'pmapass'; .. _upgrading: Upgrading from an older version +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ **Never** extract the new version over an existing installation of phpMyAdmin; we had evidence of problems caused by this. Simply copy :file:`config.inc.php` from your previous installation into the newly unpacked one. Configuration files from old versions may require some tweaking as some options have been changed or removed. For compatibility with PHP 5.3 and later, remove a ``set_magic_quotes_runtime(0);`` statement that you might find near the end of your configuration file. You should **not** copy :file:`libraries/config.default.php` over :file:`config.inc.php` because the default configuration file is version- specific. If you have upgraded your MySQL server from a version previous to 4.1.2 to version 5.x or newer and if you use the phpMyAdmin configuration storage, you should run the :term:`SQL` script found in :file:`examples/upgrade_tables_mysql_4_1_2+.sql`. If you have upgraded your phpMyAdmin to 4.3.0 or newer from 2.5.0 or newer (<= 4.2.x) and if you use the phpMyAdmin configuration storage, you should run the :term:`SQL` script found in :file:`examples/upgrade_column_info_4_3_0+.sql`. .. index:: Authentication mode .. _authentication_modes: Using authentication modes ++++++++++++++++++++++++++ :term:`HTTP` and cookie authentication modes are recommended in a **multi-user environment** where you want to give users access to their own database and don't want them to play around with others. Nevertheless be aware that MS Internet Explorer seems to be really buggy about cookies, at least till version 6. Even in a **single-user environment**, you might prefer to use :term:`HTTP` or cookie mode so that your user/password pair are not in clear in the configuration file. :term:`HTTP` and cookie authentication modes are more secure: the MySQL login information does not need to be set in the phpMyAdmin configuration file (except possibly for the :config:option:`$cfg['Servers'][$i]['controluser']`). However, keep in mind that the password travels in plain text, unless you are using the HTTPS protocol. In cookie mode, the password is stored, encrypted with the AES algorithm, in a temporary cookie. Then each of the *true* users should be granted a set of privileges on a set of particular databases. Normally you shouldn't give global privileges to an ordinary user, unless you understand the impact of those privileges (for example, you are creating a superuser). For example, to grant the user *real_user* with all privileges on the database *user_base*: .. code-block:: mysql GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON user_base.* TO 'real_user'@localhost IDENTIFIED BY 'real_password'; What the user may now do is controlled entirely by the MySQL user management system. With HTTP or cookie authentication mode, you don't need to fill the user/password fields inside the :config:option:`$cfg['Servers']`. .. index:: pair: HTTP; Authentication mode HTTP authentication mode ------------------------ * Uses :term:`HTTP` Basic authentication method and allows you to log in as any valid MySQL user. * Is supported with most PHP configurations. For :term:`IIS` (:term:`ISAPI`) support using :term:`CGI` PHP see :ref:`faq1_32`, for using with Apache :term:`CGI` see :ref:`faq1_35`. * See also :ref:`faq4_4` about not using the :term:`.htaccess` mechanism along with ':term:`HTTP`' authentication mode. .. index:: pair: Cookie; Authentication mode .. _cookie: Cookie authentication mode -------------------------- * Username and password are stored in cookies during the session and password is deleted when it ends. * With this mode, the user can truly log out of phpMyAdmin and log back in with the same username. * If you want to allow users to enter any hostname to connect (rather than only servers that are configured in :file:`config.inc.php`), see the :config:option:`$cfg['AllowArbitraryServer']` directive. * As mentioned in the :ref:`require` section, having the ``mcrypt`` extension will speed up access considerably, but is not required. .. index:: pair: Signon; Authentication mode .. _auth_signon: Signon authentication mode -------------------------- * This mode is a convenient way of using credentials from another application to authenticate to phpMyAdmin to implement signle signon solution. * The other application has to store login information into session data (see :config:option:`$cfg['Servers'][$i]['SignonSession']`) or you need to implement script to return the credentials (see :config:option:`$cfg['Servers'][$i]['SignonScript']`). * When no credentials are available, the user is being redirected to :config:option:`$cfg['Servers'][$i]['SignonURL']`, where you should handle the login process. The very basic example of saving credentials in a session is available as :file:`examples/signon.php`: .. literalinclude:: ../examples/signon.php :language: php Alternatively you can also use this way to integrate with OpenID as shown in :file:`examples/openid.php`: .. literalinclude:: ../examples/openid.php :language: php If you intend to pass the credentials using some other means than, you have to implement wrapper in PHP to get that data and set it to :config:option:`$cfg['Servers'][$i]['SignonScript']`. There is very minimal example in :file:`examples/signon-script.php`: .. literalinclude:: ../examples/signon-script.php :language: php .. seealso:: :config:option:`$cfg['Servers'][$i]['auth_type']`, :config:option:`$cfg['Servers'][$i]['SignonSession']`, :config:option:`$cfg['Servers'][$i]['SignonScript']`, :config:option:`$cfg['Servers'][$i]['SignonURL']` .. index:: pair: Config; Authentication mode Config authentication mode -------------------------- * This mode is sometimes the less secure one because it requires you to fill the :config:option:`$cfg['Servers'][$i]['user']` and :config:option:`$cfg['Servers'][$i]['password']` fields (and as a result, anyone who can read your :file:`config.inc.php` can discover your username and password). * In the :ref:`faqmultiuser` section, there is an entry explaining how to protect your configuration file. * For additional security in this mode, you may wish to consider the Host authentication :config:option:`$cfg['Servers'][$i]['AllowDeny']['order']` and :config:option:`$cfg['Servers'][$i]['AllowDeny']['rules']` configuration directives. * Unlike cookie and http, does not require a user to log in when first loading the phpMyAdmin site. This is by design but could allow any user to access your installation. Use of some restriction method is suggested, perhaps a :term:`.htaccess` file with the HTTP-AUTH directive or disallowing incoming HTTP requests at one’s router or firewall will suffice (both of which are beyond the scope of this manual but easily searchable with ȸ). .. index:: pair: Swekey; Authentication mode .. _swekey: Swekey authentication mode -------------------------- The Swekey is a low cost authentication USB key that can be used in web applications. When Swekey authentication is activated, phpMyAdmin requires the users's Swekey to be plugged before entering the login page (currently supported for cookie authentication mode only). Swekey Authentication is disabled by default. To enable it, add the following line to :file:`config.inc.php`: .. code-block:: php $cfg['Servers'][$i]['auth_swekey_config'] = '/etc/swekey.conf'; You then have to create the ``swekey.conf`` file that will associate each user with their Swekey Id. It is important to place this file outside of your web server's document root (in the example, it is located in ``/etc``). Feel free to use it with your own users' information. If you want to purchase a Swekey please visit `http://phpmyadmin.net/auth\_key `_ since this link provides funding for phpMyAdmin. A self documented sample file is provided in the file :file:`examples/swekey.sample.conf`: .. literalinclude:: ../examples/swekey.sample.conf :language: sh .. seealso:: :config:option:`$cfg['Servers'][$i]['auth_swekey_config']` Securing your phpMyAdmin installation +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ The phpMyAdmin team tries hard to make the application secure, however there are always ways to make your installation more secure: * remove ``setup`` directory from phpMyAdmin, you will probably not use it after initial setup * properly choose authentication method - :ref:`cookie` is probably the best choice for shared hosting * in case you don't want all MySQL users to be able to access phpMyAdmin, you can use :config:option:`$cfg['Servers'][$i]['AllowDeny']['rules']` to limit them * consider hiding phpMyAdmin behind authentication proxy, so that MySQL credentials are not all users need to login * if you are afraid of automated attacks, enabling Captcha by :config:option:`$cfg['CaptchaLoginPublicKey']` and :config:option:`$cfg['CaptchaLoginPrivateKey']` might be an option.